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A Critical Guide to Reservoir Appraisal and Development - training course
This course is designed to develop the key technical skills beyond seismic interpretation that need to be applied in order to appraise and develop a reservoir, incorporating geological, petrophysical and reservoir engineering techniques. The importance of developing decision-related and coherent reservoir models will be illustrated with case studies, and the role of multi-disciplinary subsurface teams will be emphasised, with reference to the business decision making process.
This is a five-day classroom-based course with a mixture of lectures, practical exercises and case studies.
Suitability - Who should attend?
The course is designed for experienced (5 years minimum) subsurface staff who have been involved in field appraisal and development, team leaders and asset managers involved in the planning and execution of subsurface reservoir modelling projects. It is also aimed at reservoir engineers wishing to gain a greater insight into the geoscience input to reservoir models.
Outcome / Qualification etc.
Participants will learn to:
- Assess the sources of the wide range of data which contribute to the understanding and development of hydrocarbon reservoirs, their use and associated uncertainty.
- Evaluate the use of both static and dynamic reservoir models as part of the decision making process.
- Assess the implications of the construction, structure and limitations of reservoir simulators.
- Evaluate reservoirs in the context of their depositional and structural settings and the evolution of these controls as well as the impact of rock mechanical properties on drilling, well bore stability and the integrity of log and core data.
- Discuss and analyse the controls on and evolution of static/discovered hydrocarbon distribution (reservoir limits, contacts, saturation).
- Measure the impact of pore scale properties and processes on hydrocarbon saturation and flow.
- Assess the causes and importance of compartmentalisation in reservoirs and its early recognition.
- Understand the importance of assessing fluid properties and fluid and rock PVT for reservoir description, material balance and flow assurance.
- Use formation tester data, of varying vintages, for reservoir description.
- Evaluate how reservoir energy (including aquifers), fluid responses, drive mechanisms and EOR processes are assessed and managed to maximise planned recovery.
- Understand the technical aspects of well testing and its use in both appraisal and development conditions.
- Understand the pitfalls and best practices in building and using simulation models for appraisal and development decision making.
- Evaluate how reservoir energy, fluid responses, drive mechanisms and EOR processes are working to optimise recoveries, with a specific discussion about aquifers.
- Appraise well-testing from a technical perspective in Appraisal and Development applications and its relevance to resource progression into reserves.
- Assess the use of Simulation models for field Appraisal and Development Decisions.
Training Course Content
The development of a numerical description of a reservoir (a reservoir model - albeit a material balance model, mechanistic simulation model or full-field simulation) is a multi-disciplinary task that should be tailored to the requirements of future technical and commercial decisions.The course does not discuss any interpretation or modelling software platforms or workflows but does discuss the philosophy for their use.
1. Introduction and Road Map
1.1 Themes and Messages
1.2 Setting Objectives for Subsurface Studies
1.3 Generic Reservoir/Process Attributes
1.4 Data Integrity and Use of Analogues
1.5 Support for Other Disciplines
2. How Simulation Models Work
2.1 Business Decisions Based on Reservoir Models
2.2 How Simulation Models Work
This section will briefly discuss the end product of a subsurface teams’ efforts – a reservoir model, and how it should be used for decision making. This, along with a summary of how simulators work, will set the context for the following sections in defining what the objectives of the team should be.
3. Beyond the Definition of the Reservoir Envelope
3.1 Structural Aspects of Reservoir Description
3.3 Defining Fluid Contacts
There is no technical seismic interpretation discussion. These sessions focus on describing the characteristics of the “container” resulting from its structural and filling history as they impact on the reservoir model and the linkages that should be developed between the geophysicist, geologist, geomechanicist and basin modeller/petroleum systems analyst.
4. Rock Properties and Drilling
4.1 The Impact of Mechanical Rock Properties on the Reservoir/Borehole/Core/Logs
4.2 Drilling and Drilling Data
4.3 Horizontal Wells
A brief discussion of how the mechanical properties of rocks can control reservoir behaviour and do control boreholes and the data we obtain from them. This is followed by a discussion of the influences on the successes of horizontal wells, as well as the problems that can occur.
5. Micro-Scale Reservoir Properties
5.1 Porosity and Compressibility
5.2 Capillary Pressure and Pore Fabrics
5.3 Resistivity and Wettability
5.4 Permeability and Relative Permeability
5.5 Special Core Analysis
This section introduces the static controls on hydrocarbon saturation at the pore scale and how they are measured as well as a short introduction to wettability. Permeability is also discussed in empirical terms and is followed by a summary of relative permeability. Log, core and SCAL measurements are assessed in the light of the above.
6. Meso-Scale Reservoir Properties
6.1 Compartmentalisation and Sealing Faults
6.2 Approaches to Modelling and Heterogeneity
6.3 Sedimentary Facies Recognition and its Impact
6.4 Stratigraphy and Correlation
6.5 Layering and Layer Properties in Modelling
Following a discussion of reservoir compartmentalisation, its causes and recognition, this section starts the process of constructing a reservoir model by examining some examples of the different types of geological model and discusses the issues of heterogeneity modelling. Facies and correlation are examined from the point of view of their impact on the geological model and then the process of permeability layering for simulation is described.
7. How Reservoirs Work
7.1 Reservoir Energy and Displacement Mechanisms
7.2 Pore Pressure Data and the use of the wireline formation testers for obtaining pressures and fluid samples
7.3 PVT and Material Balance
7.5 Well Testing
7.6 Production Data and Reservoir Surveillance (Optional only if time allows)
This section concentrates on the dynamic aspects of reservoir modelling, starting with a discussion of reservoir energy and the different types of displacement mechanisms, both natural and engineered. The measurement and implications of reservoir pressures are examined, with reference to the wireline formation tester. A brief discussion of fluids properties and of fluid sampling follows. A very brief discussion of PVT analysis is followed by a simple summary of material balance and its use. The importance of understanding aquifer performance is summarised and then a summary of how well tests are planned and analysed is given.
8. Reservoir Simulation and Reserves Estimation
8.1 Types and Use of Simulation Models
8.2 Field Reserves and their Uncertainty
As a means of drawing together some of the week’s key themes, the final section describes the range of simulation models that can be used and discusses the best ways to obtain maximum benefit from them. The importance of gridding is examined, followed by a discussion of the history matching and prediction processes. Finally, there is a discussion of how and why field reserve estimates change through time, and the importance of taking account of uncertainty in the analysis process.
The cost of this training course is GBP 3215 per delegate.
Nautilus can also deliver this training course on an in-house basis, helping your staff achieve their professional development goals. With a customised, In-House Training solution, you can tailor the course content to individual company requirements by incorporating your data, your software, or specific case studies.
Over the past 17 years Nautilus has developed a portfolio of world-class training courses for professionals in the energy industry. Acquired by the RPS Group in March 2011, Nautilus is now part of the Energy division of RPS. Starting from six...